For famous photojournalist Sir Don McCullin, the landscape has changed since the days when dozens of printed pages were devoted to his photo stories, leading him to declare, “Photojournalism is dying.” According to Sir Don McCullin, newspapers and magazines are much more interested in the wealthy, the glamorous and celebrities. They don’t want suffering people in their newspapers. Photojournalism hasn’t lost its way but it’s been conveniently pushed aside. Shrinking editorial budgets, increasing competition and mistrust of the Press are just some of the factors impacting photojournalism. But the power of photography endures and technology is allowing photographers more creative freedom than ever before. The world is hungry for visual storytelling, but will photojournalism survive?
We spoke to photojournalists working in this industry about the state of affairs today, and asked their opinions about photojournalism in the digital age.
“Assignments have changed, so people don’t need to go somewhere for months to work on one project. When Don McCullin’s pictures were making it into the newspaper, his images would be the news. Now if I take a picture at Nelson Mandela’s funeral, for instance, there are 300 other photographers there. There are so many images that you are never going to really shoot an iconic image. You’re not the only one there — there are your colleagues and there are people with cellphones. I don’t think a single image will ever lose its power. Single images, to me, are so strong — I can look at a single image and never forget it. But there are new ways of storytelling — with cellphones, with interactive online experiences and virtual reality. Therefore, it’s important to see what matches the story.”
“I think now we are freer than before because of technology. Besides, we don’t care about the newspapers like people did before. We get free from the newspapers, so we are able to tell stories in the way we want to tell them. In my opinion, pictures can express emotions — I believe more in emotions than in rationality. I don’t want to tell people, ‘this is like this’, or ‘like that’. I want them to first feel something from the pictures, and then ask some questions. They will have to find the answers by themselves.”
“When I started, press photography was a pretty old-school profession, but today it’s completely different. It’s not about the technique any more. It’s about telling stories, and you have endless opportunities to tell stories by means of pictures. If you are engaging in storytelling, I would say your future is very bright. Photojournalism is more democratic. As a matter of fact, nowadays we can see people shooting with their cellphones anywhere. Photojournalism is no longer the privilege of those working at newspapers. The new generation of photojournalists should work in a completely different way. As you see everywhere, visual storytelling is getting more and more important. If you’re good at that, you’re going to survive.”
“A lot of people have been declaring that photojournalism is dead and, somehow, it’s still around. It’s still alive, and it’s still kicking — maybe not quite as hard as in Don McCullin’s days, but it’s still important. It doesn’t have the impact it once had, and it will never have that impact again. I always believe photography plays a role, but if there are better ways of telling visual stories, I’m fine with that. The biggest problem we are running into now is how to make others believe us. Look at how really basic facts are in question nowadays. To make our work a reliable source of information is our biggest challenge. I haven’t figured out a way to make news more trustworthy — the only thing we can do is do good work. That means doing research and trying to represent events in a fair way.”
1.What does Ilvy want to say with the example of Nelson Mandela’s funeral?
A.Great news like this is always attractive.
B.Taking a satisfying picture is really difficult.
C.Too many people take up photojournalism.
D.Popularity of cellphones threatens photojournalism.
2.What idea do Sessini and Wennman share?
A.Good pictures are worth all the hard work.
B.It’s better to let the picture itself tell stories.
C.Technology is photographers’ greatest enemy.
D.Photojournalism will be the first to be kicked out.
3.What does the underlined sentence mean?
A.Photojournalism enjoys great popularity nowadays.
B.Photojournalism is really a promising career in the future.
C.Everyone can report news stories using photos taken by themselves.
D.Photojournalism has lost its appeal for those working at newspapers.
4.What does Etter say about photojournalism?
A.It is not as influential as in Don McCullin’s days.
B.It almost died in Don McCullin’s days.
C.It may have an even better future.
D.It actually exists in name only.
5.What can we learn about Etter?
A.His talent was once questioned.
B.He is optimistic about his future career.
C.He will resign from his job sooner or later.
D.He is seeking suitable ways to tell visual stories.
There are certain areas on Mars where we don’t dare tread. NASA forbids spacecraft from visiting spots that possibly host liquid water, and so where life might be able to thrive, for fear of contaminating (感染) Mars with Earth microbes. But an analysis of the salty liquids on Mars suggests we needn’t worry, because life as we know it should be unable to exist anywhere on the planet’s surface.
Edgard Rivera-Valentin at the Lunar and Planetary Institutein Texas and his colleagues used readings of the temperature and relative humidity across Mars to map the presence of salty water. Any water on the surface is likely to be salty, simply because the surface is. This boosts the chances of water being liquid because salt lowers its freezing point.
It is like when you throw salt on an icy sidewalk, says Danielle Nuding at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. “It’s the same chemistry happening.”
Unfortunately, the saltier the water, the less likely anything can survive in it. The team found that even though there could be briny (盐分多的) water on the surface of Mars up to 18 per cent of the year, depending on the season, no microbe we have ever seen on Earth would be able to reproduce there.
Life as we know it is not going to find these brines and survive because it’s either going to be way too cold or way too salty,” says Rivera-Valentin, who presented the results at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Texas.
That doesn’t mean we can’t contaminate Mars: brines with different types of salts mixed together might be friendlier to life and temperatures just below the surface are much less extreme. Nevertheless, as long as we don’t dig down, it might be highly unlikely or even impossible for rovers (飞行器) such as Curiosity to contaminate Mars.
“The level of sterilization (杀菌) that we’ve done with Curiosity should be good enough to ignore the ban on visiting what we’ve been calling special regions until now, says Jennifer Hanley at Lowell Observatory in Arizona. I think that we’re OK to go. Visiting these regions would be particularly helpful because, while they are in theory the most vulnerable areas on Mars, they are also the most interesting.
For example, arguments have been raging for over a decade about whether dark streaks on Martian slopes called recurring slope lineae are flowing water or just dust. A quick visit by Curiosity, which is near an area where the flows often form, could solve it once and for all.
Even if areas with water are inhospitable to Earth life, they could still be home to native Martian life forms.
“If you had life that originated on Mars when it was more habitable, it could be that as Mars changed, life could have gradually adapted to the new, more extreme conditions,” says Rivera-Valentin.
1.NASA forbids spacecraft from visiting the special regions on Mars because .
A.life is unable to thrive there, thus there’s no point of visiting them
B.Martian life probably exists there and might threaten human beings
C.they worry Earth microbes might survive there, thus contaminating Mars
D.human beings know nothing about these areas and they are dangerous to us
2.Which of the following statements is true?
A.Mars surface being salty provides evidence that Mars hosts liquid water.
B.Earth life is unlikely to contaminate Mars because the surface of the planet is either too cold or too salty.
C.The fear of contaminating Mars is unnecessary because human beings won’t contaminate Mars under any circumstances.
D.Jennifer Hanley thinks human beings should explore the special regions on Mars in order to confirm the existence of Martian life.
3.What is the point of visiting the special regions on Mars?
A.Martian life might be found.
B.Liquid water might be found.
C.Many puzzles about Mars could soon be solved.
D.No humans have ever visited those regions before.
4.In the passage, you can find the answers to all the questions except .
A.whether the surface of Mars is salty or not
B.whether any native Martian life forms exist
C.whether Earth life is able to survive on Mars or not
D.whether the rover Curiosity will contaminate Mars
The Professional Footballers’ Association will help to fund the initiative that will lead to the FA appointing up to 28 black, Asian and ethnic minority coaches to work with all England teams next season, including Gareth Southgate’s senior squad (小队).
The Times revealed details of the joint FA and PFA scheme yesterday, which could be finalised as soon as next week. Martin Glenn, the FA chief executive, is due to meet his counterpart at the PFA, Gordon Taylor, at Wembley before England’s friendly international against Italy next Tuesday. Chris Powell, the Southend United manager, has been identified as a potential addition to Southgate’s back-room staff after the World Cup, which would be welcomed by the England manager.
The FA has already held initial talks with several other coaches, including Jason Euell, Charlton Athletic’s under 23 coach, about taking on a role in the national coaching set-up at St George’s Park. The former Jamaica international has previously questioned the merit of the so-called Rooney Rule, which the FA implemented (执行) in January with a commitment to interview a BAME (black, Asian and minority ethnic) candidate for every coaching position. But Euell believes that the governing body’s decision to offer 28 positions is a more practical way to bring about change.
The FA has begun offering opportunities to BAME coaches, with the former Everton striker Danny Cadamarteri, who is currently a youth coach with Burnley, working with England’s under-18 squad this week. It will extend the programme after it has been approved by the FA Board. The PFA has been instrumental in developing the proposals through the work of their sponsors Brendon Batson, Garth Crooks and Paul Elliott, and have promised to provide funds to make it a success.
“This is integral (完整的) to the modernization of the FA,” Taylor told The Times. “If it’s implemented correctly, with meaningful roles, it will show the FA really means football is for all.”
However, Crooks added that it was a “monumental error of judgment” by Southgate not to take a black coach to Russia for the World Cup finals to support England’s black players in the event of racial abuse from fans.
The FA’s plans received a cautious welcome from many in the game, with the former England defender Viv Anderson saying that coaches from BAME backgrounds have been hindered (阻碍) by a lack of access. The 61-year-old was the first black player to represent England in 1978 and went on to manage Barnsley before joining Middlesbrough as an assistant coach.
“There are only a handful of black managers so there’s clearly a problem,” Anderson said. “If you go up and down the country there are black and ethnic minority players in every squad, but very few go on to become coaches, which is down to a lack of opportunity and access. There are still a lot of negative perceptions about black managers and coaches, which are totally false.” At least the FA is trying to do something, and it could make a difference.
1.What is the passage mainly about?
A.PFA has funded FA in the World Cup.
B.FA and PFA will work together to diversify the coach team.
C.PFA will take on black coaches for England teams.
D.FA has interviewed 28 BAME candidates for coaching positions.
2.We can infer that Jason Euell is .
A.working in the national coaching set-up
B.in favor of the joint FA and PFA scheme
C.likely to be one of the Southgate’s back-room staff
D.sceptical about FA’s promise to interview BAME candidates
3.Why are many people cautious about the FA’s plans?
A.BAME coaches lack chances and access to England teams.
B.The FA Board hasn’t approved the plan for lack of sponsors.
C.Older coaches don’t possess qualifications for national coaches.
D.There are not enough BAME players to represent England teams.
4.The author holds the view that .
A.there are still negative perceptions about black managers and coaches
B.black managers and coaches are superior in managing football teams
C.advantages in taking on black coaches outweigh disadvantages
D.attempts are being made to show the FA means football for all
Make us laugh, move us to tears ... write a brilliant, memorable nonfiction piece and you may be one of our two monthly winners. The sections include: Nonfiction, Focused/Special Issue, College Essays, Heroes, Pride & Prejudice, Health, Points of View and Sports.
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Submit entries through our website. All nonfiction works submitted to Teen Ink are automatically considered for the monthly contest. See our submission guidelines for more information.
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1.What do we know about the contest?
A.It is held twice a month. B.There will be 12 winners every year.
C.It covers a wide range of topics. D.Winners will receive some prize money.
2.What must we do to take part in the contest?
A.Write an article by ourselves. B.Write a long enough article.
C.Focus on a seasonal or holiday theme. D.Send our work at the beginning of a month.
Early that day, I was so busy caring for our patient’s procedure that needed to be wrapped up. As my day nearly_____________, I was excited to meet my playfellows and_______with them. I was already outside our special area unit in the hospital when a woman suddenly came to me, holding a doctor’s_______with my name on it. My enthusiasm fell___________. But, instead of being cheeky, like others would probably do showing_______or impatience, I showed her a heartfelt smile and_______what was written in the prescription, only to find out it wasn’t hers but her husband’s, and my name on it_______the doctor wanted me to give the proper instruction on how to use the bowel (肠) preparation needed for her husband, who was_______for the examination the following day. I met her husband, who was very ___________and a good listener. We connected instantly with each other,________jokes.
The next time we met was during his colonoscopy (结肠镜检查)________and I assisted him in filling out the papers________by their insurance company. Given final________, they left the hospital. At noon, I was alone cleaning the________when suddenly I heard a knock on the glass door, thinking it might somebody who would like to____________of our services. I casually looked up and I was________because my visitors were the patient and his wife again! I opened the door and asked if they needed more________or perhaps forgot something. To my surprise they gave me a packed________and a bottle of pineapple juice!
Life has many facets. Its bits and pieces________you even in your busy days. It could end up with a________or a free lunch. It’s just a matter of thinking from a different angle.
1.A.approached B.concluded C.occupied D.advanced
2.A.study B.unite C.relax D.associate
3.A.prescription B.reservation C.receipt D.diploma
4.A.eventually B.desperately C.aggressively D.considerably
5.A.improvement B.excitement C.disappointment D.embarrassment
6.A.reviewed B.checked C.described D.retold
7.A.before B.when C.whereas D.because
8.A.prepared B.scheduled C.allocated D.distributed
9.A.stubborn B.rigid C.merciful D.humorous
10.A.exchanging B.applauding C.providing D.exploiting
11.A.appointment B.procedure C.operation D.signature
12.A.needed B.offered C.suggested D.adopted
13.A.instructions B.encouragement C.congratulations D.calculation
14.A.ward B.bedroom C.corridor D.instrument
15.A.remind B.inform C.inquire D.talk
16.A.taken aback B.torn apart C.paid back D.cut in
17.A.cure B.information C.comfort D.treatment
18.A.cake B.flower C.bag D.lunch
19.A.touch B.hurt C.bother D.defend
20.A.consensus B.shock C.complaint D.relief
If we could all learn to ________ a little more, the world would be a much happier place.
A.live and let live B.live from hand to mouth
C.fight fire with fire D.add fuel to the flames
Unlike compulsions and addictions, which are acted out uncontrollably, habits are actions that are repeated regularly and ___________.
A.automatically B.typically C.tentatively D.positively
________in a mass parade at Beijing’s Tian’anmen Square on the National Day were more than 100,000 people from all walks of life to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of China.
A.Having involved B.Involving C.Involved D.Being involved
—We didn’t find Ju Xiaopeng attending the English Class online.
—No one ________ him about ________ a lecture even on Saturday.
A.told; there to be B.had told; there to be
C.told; there was D.had told; there being