A breathtaking trick potentially left over from our ancestors might be found in us-the ability to sense oxygen through our skin.
Amphibians, animals such as frogs that can live both on land and in water, have long been known to be capable of breathing through their skin. In fact, the first known lungless frog that breathes only through its skin was discovered recently in the rivers of Borneo.
Now the same oxygen sensors found in frog skins and in the lungs of mammals have unexpectedly been discovered in the skin of mice. “No one had ever looked,” explained Randall Johnson, a biologist researcher. Mice and frogs are quite distant relatives, so the fact they have these molecules in common in their skin suggests they might well be found in the skin of other mammals, such as humans. “We have no reason to think that they are not in the skin of people too.” Johnson said.
These molecules not only detect oxygen, but help increase levels of vital red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body. Normal mice breathing in air that is 10 percent oxygen-a dangerously low level similar to conditions at the top of Mount Everest, and about half that of air at sea level. However, mice that had the oxygen sensor HIF-la genetically removed from their skin failed to produce this hormone even after hours of such low oxygen.
These findings, if they hold true in humans, suggest one could raise the level of oxygen circulating inside the body. This could help treat lung diseases and disorders such as anemia without injecting drugs, which make up a multibillion- dollar market, Johnson said.
Athletes also often try to get more oxygen delivered to their muscles in order to improve their performance. They often do this by training at high altitudes or in low-oxygen tents. The new study suggests they might want to expose their skin as well as breathing in low-oxygen air to improve their performance. “It's hard to say what exactly might be done, however-there's a lot we don't know yet,” Johnson explained. The scientists detailed their findings in the April 18 issue of the journal Cell.
1.Which of the following statements is TRUE according to the passage?
A.Johnson believes that Oxygen sensors also exist in human skin.
B.People have to surf the Internet to read detailed findings.
C.It has been proved that these findings help treat lung diseases.
D.It has long been expected oxygen sensors exist in mice's skin.
2.One of the functions of the molecules mentioned above is
A.carrying-oxygen around the body
D.increasing level of oxygen
3.What is Johnson's attitude to the application of the findings to the athletes'training?
A.Negative B.Pessimistic C.Positive D.Hesitating
4.The best title of the passage may be
A.Great Findings Benefits Athletes A Lot
B.Frogs And Mice Are Distant Relatives
C.First Known Animal Breathes Through Skin
D.Humans Might Sense Oxygen Through Skin
They may have text, email, Facebook and Twitter, but young people are still lonelier than any other age group. The Loneliness in New Zealand report, published by Statistics New Zealand, shows under 30s are more likely to feel lonely than older people because loneliness decreases with age.Loneliness and poor mental health were strongly related across all ages. Young people were not as likely to feel lonely because of financial hardship, but among older people, lack of money was a significant influence on loneliness. Women were more likely to feel lonely than men.
Philip Walker, spokesman for the General Social Survey, said because it was relatively new it was hard to know whether loneliness among young people was a new trend. But overseas research has found that levels of loneliness in youth today are growing.
Walker said the finding needed more exploration, including looking at the role of technology and social media. “It could be that people's expectations of connection have gone up, so we expect increased levels of connection.” he said. “While technology like cell phones could help young people stay connected, on the other hand for those who do get bullied, especially bullied online, it's quite isolating. A lot of the time potentially it is a big contributor to loneliness.”
Figures from online dating website Find Someone also confirmed more young people were looking for love. Manager Rick Davies, said younger dating hopefuls were the fastest growing group on the site.
Mr. Davies noted that since the report data was collected in 2010 there had been huge growth in smart phones, which meant people were online even more. He believed online tools, such as Skype, could help people stay connected. “People can keep in touch with a wide range of friends from all over the world much more easily now. It's like you're sitting in your living room having a chat with them.”
Bemardine Reid, operations committee chairwoman for Samaritans, which operates a free helpline, said many of their calls came from people who were lonely. “It might be that they've got some problem, just like all the things people would normally talk to a friend about, but people who are alone lack those normal contacts.” The Statistics New Zealand report also showed people who didn't have face-to-face contact with family and friends were more likely to feel lonely, as were those who lived alone.
1.Which of the following may Mr. Walker agree with?
A.High technology may become a reason for loneliness.
B.People shouldn't use the Internet to get to know strangers.
C.It's hard for people to get enough connection online as expected.
D.Social media should play an important role in helping lonely people.
2.From the last two paragraphs, we can conclude that .
A.Internet can keep people free from loneliness
B.people chatting a lot online tend to be optimistic
C.people living alone tend to have more connection online
D.people communicating less in the real-world risk loneliness
3.It can be inferred from the passage that .
A.Find Someone is a website where you can find old friends
B.without technology, young people would not feel lonely
C.high technology results in the older being lonely
D.those cheated or hurt online tend to feel lonely
4.What is the best title of the passage?
A.Loneliness around You B.Young People Online
C.Young but Lonely D.E-times and Young People
The day after Thanksgiving is the start of the holiday shopping season. Thanksgiving is always on a Thursday, so the day after is a Friday. This day has come to be known as Black Friday. It has been the busiest shopping day of the year since 2005.
Most stores offer great deals on Black Friday. They open their doors in the small hours of the morning. They try to attract shoppers with big discounts. Some items like TVs are much cheaper than usual. Stores may even lose money on these items. They hope that shoppers will buy gifts for other people while they are in the store.
Black Friday is a great time to get good deals. The problem is that there are not enough low-priced items to go around. Each store may only have a few. These items are in high demand. People stand in long lines to get such great deals. They may line up hours before a store opens. They may be hoping to get a low price on a TV or laptop, but not everyone who wants one will get one. Some people leave disappointed.
The situation can be tense. Some Black Friday events have been violent. Large, eager crowds have trampled workers. Fights have broken out over toys or people cutting in line. People have shot one another over parking spots. But most Black Friday events are safe and fun. Still, if you plan on going, expect large crowds and a bit of pushing and shoving.
So where does the name “Black Friday” come from? It was first used in Philadelphia in the 1950s. The police called this day Black Friday because of the heavy traffic it drew. In the 1960s, spread across the country. It seems that it is here to stay.
Now people all over the country take part in the event known as Black Friday. It is even spreading to other parts of the world. Stores have held Black Friday events in the U.K., Australia, and Brazil since 2012. In Costa Rica Black Friday is known as “Viernes Negro.” And in Mexico, stores offer an annual weekend of discounts. They call it “EI Buen Fin,” which means “the good weekend” in Spanish. I guess the language of savings is universal.
1.Why do stores set prices so low on some items that they lose money?
A.They want people to enjoy the holidays.
B.They are generous at the beginning of the holiday season.
C.They hope people will buy other gifts while they are in the store.
D.They are trying to get rid of old items.
2.Which best concludes the main idea of the third paragraph?
A.People stand in long lines on Black Friday.
B.Black Friday is a really disappointing time of the year.
C.Black Friday is the best time of the year to get good deals.
D.Black Friday deals are limited and not everyone will get one.
3.Which best describes the overall structure of the fifth paragraph?
A.Order of time. B.Problem and solution.
C.Order of importance. D.Compare and contrast.
4.Which title best expresses the author’s purpose in writing this text?
A.Black Friday: Stories from the Parking Lot
B.Black Friday: Why You Should Go This Year
C.Black Friday: The Stuff That You Should Know
D.Black Friday: How to Save Money on the Big Day
Want to explore new cultures,meet new people and do something worthwhile at the same time?You can do all the three with Global Development Association(GDA).Whatever stage of life you're at,wherever you go and whatever project you do in GDA,you'll create positive changes in a poor and remote community(社区）。
We work with volunteers of all ages and backgrounds.Most of our volunteers are aged 17-24.Now we need volunteer managers aged 25-75.They are extremely important in the safe and effective running of our programmes.We have such roles as project managers,mountain leaders,and communication officers.
Depending on which role you choose,you could help to increase a community's access to safe drinking water, or help to protect valuable local cultures.You might also design an adventure challenge to train young volunteers.
Not only will you help our young volunteers to develop personally,you'll also lean new skills and increase your cultural awareness.You may have chances to meet new people who'll become your lifelong friends.
This summer we have both 4-week and 7-week programmes:
GDA ensures that volunteers work with community members and local project partners where our help is needed.All our projects aim to promote the development of poor and remote communities.
There is no other chance like a GDA programme.Join us as a volunteer manager to develop your own skills while bringing benefits to the communities.
Find out more about joining a GDA programme:
1.What is the main responsibility of volunteer managers?
A.To seek local partners. B.To take in young volunteers.
C.To carry out programmes. D.To promote cultural awareness.
2.The programme beginning in August will operate in______.
A.Egypt B.Algeria C.Kenya D.South Africa
3.The shared goal of GDA's projects to________.
A.explore new cultures B.protect the environment
C.gain corporate benefit D.help communities in need
假设你是中学生李华，你的美国朋友Greg参加了当地一个网上举办的中国古诗背诵比赛（Chinese ancient poetry recitation competition），并且获得了一等奖，他写了一封邮件向你报喜，现在，你回一封邮件，邮件主要内容包括：
Li Ziqi, a Chinese girl living in small village with her grandma in Mianyang, seldom speaks to media. At 29, she is famous as her beautiful videos of country life, posted on Weibo and YouTube.
She tends to work in silence. Absorbed in the natural beauty of the countryside, she devotes herself to extreme traditional ways of cooking, planting and making clothes. Although Ms. Li is almost always alone, but she doesn’t seem lonely. She shows that every single bit of food come from hard work. Long processes of making food seem meaningful and worthwhile.
It was very hot in New York City last July 4th.Three police officers ducked into a Whole Foods Market to get something________to drink. What they walked into was a heated human drama.
When the three officers，Louis，Esanidy and Michael，were inside，a store security guard________went up to them. He had been anxiously looking for________with a possible thief. The woman in question didn’t have the look of a career criminal. She was________frightened, eyes red and cheeks wet with________.
The officers________her bag on the counter. “All we saw was containers of food We saw________else,” Louis told CBS New York.
“I’m starving.” she explained________a low voice, wiping tears from her cheeks repeatedly.
Caught red-handed, the woman thought she would be pushed off to________for the crime.________, the officers had another idea. “We’ll pay for her food,” Michael told the surprised________.
They picked up the woman’s bag and _______her to a cashier, where each paid $10 for the bill.
All the woman could do was weep in________. Covering her face with a handkerchief and drying her eyes, she kept saying, “Thank you, thank you.”
She wasn’t the only one moved by this act of kindness. “It was a very beautiful,________moment,” says Paul Bozynowski, a customer at the store. He was so taken by what he’d witnessed that he________a photo on Twitter for all to see and got many likes.
1.A.cold B.soft C.hot D.tasty
2.A.sadly B.immediately C.secretly D.carefully
3.A.time B.trouble C.order D.help
4.A.obviously B.finally C.actually D.slowly
5.A.smiles B.tears C.drinks D.sweat
6.A.looked after B.looked out C.looked up D.looked into
7.A.everything B.something C.nothing D.anything
8.A.with B.over C.through D.in
9.A.school B.prison C.street D.store
10.A.However B.Therefore C.Moreover D.Otherwise
11.A.shopkeeper B.woman C.reporter D.guard
12.A.pushed B.walked C.lifted D.invited
13.A.gratitude B.shame C.sadness D.disappointment
14.A.encouraging B.challenging C.touching D.satisfying
15.A.took B.posted C.drew D.painted
How I Handle My Attention
Recently, I started to feel pressed. Having to work two different jobs, plus writing and working on personal projects is difficult.1.I would wake up earlier. I would separate my day into 3-4 different pieces and try to fill them with various projects until I realized that it just doesn’t work. Why? Because time management is not as important as attention management.
I learned a few things:
Focusing on a task is returning to it every 48 hours.2.
There is a cap of two different tasks that you can do within a single day. I learned that it’s not the work that exhausted me the most, but the switching between different types of work.
3.And personal projects should be taken care of on my own time (e.g.,on weekends and holidays).
The more creative a task is, the earlier you should work on it. I am a morning person, so I try to write before breakfast.
4.Just telling yourself to do a specific activity five minutes longer than usual can help create stillness, and it leads to high-quality focus.
Attention is a rare resource. It’s only the deep focus, the “deep work”, as Cal Newport calls it, that leads to high-quality results and productivity.5.You’ll thank yourself later.
A.Stillness breeds focus.
B.Workweek should be for work.
C.Devote 2020 to mastering this vital skill.
D.If it takes longer, it’s not in the “focus zone”
E.Stay quiet, and I found myself deeply focused.
F.What matters today is where we focus our mental energy.
G.So I started to apply the old time-management techniques to myself.
We all use different ways to remember ideas, facts and things we need to store. Remembering is an extremely important part of our learning experience. Information process, storage and recall（回顾）encourage purposeful learning.
But the brain doesn’t store everything we want or need for future use. It makes choices and tends to remember information that forms a memorable pattern. Things you learned recently can be particularly difficult to remember because they haven’t taken root in your mind.
“Forgetting allows us to remember what is really important to our survival. We forget much of what we read, watch, and think directly every day.” writes John Medina in his book, Brain Rules.
How do you avoid losing 90%of what you’ve learned? An inspiring writer and speaker Zig Ziglar once said：“Repetition is the mother of learning, the father of action, which makes it the architect of accomplishment.”
Repetition has been a remembering skill for ages. When you hear or read something once，you don’t really learn it-at least not well enough to store the new information for long. The right kind of repetition can do wonders for your memory. People learn or remember better by repeating things or getting exposed to information many times. Others repeat particular steps or processes deliberately a number of times or even years to become better at certain skills.
Daniel Coyle explains in his book, The Little Book of Talent：“...closing the book and writing a summary, even short ones, forces you to figure out the key points, process and organize those ideas so they make sense, and write them on the page. When you pick it back up weeks later, reread all of your notes or highlights to strengthen the ideas even further.”
People learn by repeating things. Better learning is a repetition process. Every time we repetitively access something we already know, we increase the memory’s stored value.
1.Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?
A.The brain tends to store 90% of the things we learn.
B.The fresher the information is, the easier to remember.
C.Thinking is more important than remembering in study.
D.The brain tends to choose and keep what it thinks important.
2.How does the writer prove his opinion?
A.By giving examples. B.By listing numbers.
C.By borrowing words of experts. D.By providing scientific finding.
3.What does Daniel Coyle want to say in his book？
A.You can’t pay too much attention to repetition.
B.Summarizing is a very effective learning tool.
C.Forgetting forces human brain to make choices.
D.Regular repetition helps to form good habits.
4.What may be the purpose of the last paragraph？
A.To summarize and stress his opinion. B.To ask the readers to use the skills to learn.
C.To introduce his opinion and attract readers. D.To tell readers to increase the value of memory.
5.Which do you think is the best title of the passage？
A.How the Brain Works B.Reading for More
C.Fighting Against Forgetting D.Repeat to Remember
A UPS (United Parcel Service) driver Ryan Arens was making his rounds near a pond in Bozeman, Montana, when he heard a sound. “Like a cry for help,” he told the Dodo. It was December 2019, and about 15 feet from the frozen banks was the source of that cry-a struggling dog with half of its body underwater, trying to stick to a thin layer of ice. How she got there no one knows, but an elderly man was already on the scene, determined to save her. He’d entered the pond in a rowboat and was trying hard to cut the ice with a rock to create a path to the dog. It was slowly going, and Arens,44, thought he stood a better chance.
“Animals are my weakness,” he told the Great Falls Tribune, explaining why he took off his clothes without hesitation, even though the temperature was in the 30s, and took over the rowboat.
His heart beating wildly, Arens slid closer to the dog and used the other man’s rock to smash away at the ice. He gave one too strong hit and slipped off the boat, falling into 16 feet of icy water.
He resurfaced in time to see the dog going under. Using nervous energy to keep warm, he swam about five feet toward her, took hold of her collar, and pulled her to the ice. He then lifted the dog into the boat and slid it back to the shore, where anxious bystanders carried the dog to the home of the elderly man, a retired animal doctor. Once in the house himself, Arens jumped into a warm shower with the dog until they both felt warm. A few more minutes in the pond，the doctor told Arens, and she would have likely suffered cardiac arrest(心脏骤停).
The next day, Arens was back working in the same neighborhood when the dog’s owner came over to thank him for saving Sadie. “Would you like to meet her?” he asked. He opened the door to his pickup, and immediately out raced Sadie. She went straight to Arens, leaping on him and bathing him in wet kisses. “That special delivery”，says Arens, “was the highlight of my UPS career.”
1.What happened to the dog?
A.It lost its way home. B.It was caught in an accident.
C.It fell into a pond. D.It was trapped in a truck.
2.What does the underlined sentence in Paragraph 2 tell us?
A.He can’t help helping animals in trouble B.Dogs are too weak to stand the cold.
C.He is good at raising weak animals. D.He is too weak to save the dog.
3.What was the weather like when it happened?
A.Warm B.Cold C.Cool D.Hot.
4.Who saved the dog in the end?
A.The animal doctor. B.Ryan Arens
C.A bystander. D.A reporter.
5.What can we conclude from the end of the story?
A.Sadie went to live with the person who saved her.
B.The dog owner was not a responsible master.
C.Dogs should be kept indoors in cold weather.
D.Arens was proud of what he had done.